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Writer's Block: What Next?

What do you think happens to us when we die?
Decomposition (or spoilage) refers to the process by which tissues of dead organisms break down into simpler forms of matter. Such a breakdown of dead organisms is essential for new growth and development of living organisms because it recycles the finite chemical constituents and frees up the limited physical space in the biome. Bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death. It is a cascade of processes that go through distinct phases. It may be categorized in two stages by the types of end products. The first stage is limited to the production of vapors. The second stage is characterized by the formation of liquid materials; flesh or plant matter begin to decompose. The science which studies such decomposition generally is called taphonomy from the Greek word taphos - which means grave. Besides the two stages mentioned above, historically the progression of decomposition of the flesh of dead organisms has been viewed also as four phases: (1) fresh (autolysis), (2) bloat (putrefaction), (3) decay (putrefaction and carnivores) and (4) dry (diagenesis).

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Human decomposition

[edit] Stages

Once death occurs, human decomposition takes place in stages. The process of tissue breakdown may take from several days up to years. At all stages of decomposition, insect activity occurs on the body as detailed below.

[edit] Fresh

The fresh stage of decomposition occurs during the first few days following the death. There are no physical signs of decomposition during this time. However, homeostasis of the body has ceased, allowing cellular and soft tissue changes to occur because of the process of autolysis, the destruction of cells and organs due to an aseptic chemical process. At this point, the body enters algor mortis, the cooling of the body's temperature to that of its surroundings. When the body’s cells reach the final stage of autolysis, an anaerobic environment is created, that is, an environment wherein oxygen is not present. This allows the body’s normal bacteria to break down the remaining carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. The products from the breakdown create acids, gases, and other products which cause volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and putrefactive effects. VOCs are produced during the early stages of human decomposition.[1]

Substances produced during the fresh stage of decomposition attract a variety of insects. Diptera insects begin to lay their eggs on the body during this stage, especially member of the Calliphoridae family of insects.[2] If the body is on the ground or buried in soil there is also considerable insect activity by the insects that live in the soil around the body. The reasoning for this is simple: A dead human body serves as an excellent source of decaying matter to feed on and in such a hospitable environment.

[edit] Putrefaction

Odor, color changes, and bloating of the body during decomposition are the results of putrefaction. The lower part of the abdomen turns green due to bacteria activity in the cecum. Bacteria break down hemoglobin into sulfhemoglobin which causes the green color change. A formation of gases enters the abdomen which forces liquids and feces out of the body. The gases also enter the neck and face, causing swelling of the mouth, lips, and tongue. Due to this swelling and misconfiguration of the face, identification of the body can be difficult. Bacteria also enter the venous system causing blood to hemolyze. This leads to the formation of red streaks along the veins. This color soon changes to green, through a process known as marbelization. It can be seen on the shoulders, chest and shoulder area, and thighs. The skin can develop blisters containing serous fluid. The skin also becomes fragile, leading to skin slippage, making it difficult to move a body. Body hair comes off easily. The color change of the discoloration from green to brown marks the transition of the early stage of putrefaction to the advanced decompositional stages.

During the putrefaction stage of decomposition the majority of insect activity again comes from members of the Calliphoridae family, and includes Formicidae, Muscidae, Sphaeroceridae, Silphidae, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Sarcophagidae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Phalangida, Piophilidae, Araneae, Sepsidae, and Phoridae. As with the fresh stage of decomposition if the body is on the ground or buried in soil there is also considerable insect activity by the soil-inhabiting arthropods.

[edit] Black putrefaction

After the body goes through the bloating stage it begins the black putrefaction stage. At this point the body cavity ruptures, the abdominal gases escape and the body darkens from its greenish color. These activities allow for a greater invasion of scavengers, and insect activity increases greatly. This stage ends as the bones become apparent, which can take anywhere from 10 to 20 days after death depending on region and temperature. This period is also dependent on the degree to which the body is exposed.

During the black putrefaction stage of decomposition, insects that can be found living in the body are Calliphoridae larvae, Staphylinidae, Histeridae, Gamasid mites, Ptomaphila, Trichopterygidae, Piophilid larvae, Parasitic wasps, Staphylinid larvae, Trichopterygid larvae, Histerid larvae, Ptomaphila larvae, Dermestes, Tyroglyphid mites, Tineid larvae, and the Dermestes larvae. Some insects can also be found living in the soil around the body such as Isopoda, Collembola, Dermaptera, Formicidae, Pseudoscorpiones, Araneae, Plectochetos, Acari, Pauropoda, Symphyla, Geophilidae, and Protura. The types of insects will differ based on where the body is, although Diptera larvae can be found feeding on the body in almost all cases.

[edit] Butyric fermentation

After the early putrefaction and black putrefaction phases have taken place, the body begins mummification, in which the body begins to dry out. The human carcass is first mummified, and then goes through adipocere formation. Adipocere (grave wax) formation refers to the loss of body odor and the formation of a cheesy appearance on the cadaver. Mummification is considered a post-active stage because there is less definite distinction between changes and they are indicated by reduced skin, cartilage, and bone. Mummification is also indicated when all of the internal organs are lost due to insect activity.

Insects that can be found on the body during mummification include most of the same insects as in putrefaction stage, but also include Acarina, Nitidulidae, Cleridae, Dermestes caninus, and Trogidae. The main soil-inhabiting arthropods include Dermaptera and Formicidae

[edit] Dry decay

When the last of the soft-tissue has been removed from the body, the final stage of decomposition, skeletonization, occurs. This stage encompasses the deterioration of skeletal remains, and is the longest of the decomposition processes. Skeletonization differs markedly from the previous stages, not only in length, but in the deterioration process itself.

The strength and durability of bone stems from the unique protein-mineral bond present in skeletal formation. Consequently, changes to skeletal remains, known as bone diagenesis, occur at a substantially slower rate than stages of soft-tissue breakdown. As the protein-mineral bond weakens after death, however, the organic protein begins to leach away, leaving behind only the mineral composition. Unlike soft-tissue decomposition, which is influenced mainly by temperature and oxygen levels, the process of bone breakdown is more highly dependent on soil type and pH, along with presence of groundwater. However, temperature can be a contributing factor, as higher temperature leads the protein in bones to break down more rapidly. If buried, remains decay faster in acidic-based soils rather than alkaline. Bones left in areas of high moisture content also decay at a faster rate. The water leaches out skeletal minerals, which corrodes the bone, and leads to bone disintegration.[3]

At the dry decay stage commonly found insects include Sphaeroceridae, Acarina, Nitidulidae, Cleridae, Dermestes caninus, Trogidae, Tyroglyphid mites, and the Tineid larvae. The soil-inhabiting arthropods are Collembola, Dermaptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and their larvae, parasitic Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Diptera larvae, Pseudoscorpiones, Aranae, Plectochetos, Acari, Pauropoda, Symphyla, Geophilidae, Protura, and Aphididae


(From Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia!)

Comments

( 11 comments — Leave a comment )
vyctori
Mar. 19th, 2009 11:08 pm (UTC)
That was interesting, informative, and made me glad I was drinking tea only and not eating while reading.
dmajohnson
Mar. 19th, 2009 11:24 pm (UTC)
I'm sorry, but you haven't listed any sources. Also, I'm not sure this topic is notable enough to warrant its existance. Either way, it's way too POV. I move for deletion. ~~~~
burning_phoneix
Mar. 19th, 2009 11:59 pm (UTC)
cut
hinata19
Mar. 20th, 2009 12:16 am (UTC)
Oh you zany Chrissy-Wissy... >:P *pats*
samuraiter
Mar. 20th, 2009 02:16 am (UTC)
*shivers*

Cremation for me, please.
otosaretatenshi
Mar. 20th, 2009 04:00 am (UTC)
Well we could just cut to the chase and do straight mummification.
sam767
Mar. 20th, 2009 04:09 am (UTC)
Don't you want to provide nutrients for the grass in the cemetery?
angeling
Mar. 20th, 2009 02:41 am (UTC)
It puzzled me that this was pasted in apparent response to Do you think stem cell research is a good thing or a dangerous thing? Should it be funded by the government? (which, for some reason, is what I see on your entry) until I decided to check the first page to see if LJ was being a dipshit.

I am ever so glad that it was.
otosaretatenshi
Mar. 20th, 2009 04:01 am (UTC)
Don't you know? Stem Cell research has everything to do with decomposing bodies!
superbus
Mar. 20th, 2009 04:49 am (UTC)
That's funny... that was the one from a few days ago (I couldn't be very witty about such an easy - to me - question; there's only so many ways I can say YES YES YES DEAR GOD YES WHAT THE FUCK ARE YOU WAITING FOR, you know?). So I'm surprised you saw that today.
sam767
Mar. 20th, 2009 05:26 am (UTC)
Wait a minute, decomposition happens after death...
but happens WHEN we die, 'Bus? *shot*
( 11 comments — Leave a comment )

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